Mr Makarius P Itambuli

B.A., M.A. (Dar)


Areas of Specialization:Ethnobotany, Palaeobotany, Palaeoecology, Palaeolithic, Biological Anthropology, Human Origins.




Makarius is an Assistant Lecturer currently pursuing his PhD in Archaeology and Anthropology at Calgary, Canada. He got his first degree in Archaeology and History from University of Dar es Salaam in 2007, and a Master degree in Archaeology from the same university in 2013.


Research Interests

Although Makarius did his Master degree research in Rock Arts, he is currently widening his research interests towards Plio-Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction using proxy data such as phytoliths.


Current Project(s)

Makarius’ PhD project reads ‘Paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Olduvai Gorge Beds I and II (1.8-1.3mya.) using multi-proxy data to determine early hominins’ plant diets.

Paleoanthropological Research in Olduvai Gorge, Northern Tanzania, titled: Stone tools, Diet, and Sociality at the Dawn of Humanity, From 2015 to present


Past/Completed Projects

  1. Archaeological investigations on the transition from Later Stone Age to the Iron Age in the Singida region-central Tanzania, from 2009-2010; and Survey, Documentation, Recording and Management strategies for rock art of Singida East, from 2013 to 2017.
  2. Research on the evolution of modern humans in Iringa Region, southern Tanzania, from 2011-2013
  3. Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) in relation to climate change and biodiversity in Rungwe district, Mbeya region, from 2010-11
  4. Archeological survey and documentation of Rock Arts of Iringa region, southern Tanzania from 2011-2016
  5. Research on the evolution of modern humans in Lake Eyasi Basin, Northern Tanzania, from 2014 to present



Book Chapter

Itambu, M.P. (2015). Rediscovering the intriguing patrimonies depicted in rock shelters of Iringa, Tanzania. In Runge J.(ed.) Changing Climates, Ecosystems and Environments within Arid Southern Africa and Adjoining Regions: Palaeoecology of Africa 33: 10.



Itambu, M.P and Bushozi, P.G.M. (2015).The Rock Art of Iringa Region: Another Avenue for Rock Art Studies in Southern Highlands of Tanzania: Studies in the African Past, The Journal of African Archaeology Network Vol.11 E and D Vision Publishing Limited, Dar Es Salaam.

Itambu, M.P (2016)."Managing the Balance: Ecological Pressures and Heritage Resources in Rungwe District, Southern Highlands of Tanzania". Journal of Geoscience and Environment ProtectionVol.4 No.3. Scientific Research:  An Academic Publisher.

Itambu, M.P and Hongoa, N.M (2016). Archaeology and Heritage Resource Management in Siuyu, Singida Region (Tanzania).Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection Vol.4 No.6.

Mercader, J., Patalano, R., Favreau, J., Itambu, M.,Marufu, H., and Kumbani, J. (2016). Mid-Acheulean Prepared Core Technologies from the Eastern Zimbabwe Escarpment, Maunganidze (Manicaland). Journal of Archaeological Science (JAS).Reports,Vol. 8, pp. 47–62.

Mercader J., Abtosway, M., Baquedano, E., Bird, R., Díez-Martín, F., Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., Favreau, J.,Itambu, M., Lee, P.,Mabulla, A., Patalano,R., Pérez-González, A.,Santonja, M., Tucker, L., and Walde, D. (2017).Starch contamination landscapes in field archaeology: Olduvai Gorge,Tanzania. Boreas. An international Journal of Quaternary Research, DOI: 10.1111/bor.12241.

Itambu, M. P. (2017). “Integrating Rock Art Heritage Conservation with Eco-Tourism: The Case of Iringa Region, Tanzania”. UNESCO Proceedings: African Heritage and the Pillars of Sustainability.

Itambu, M. P. et al., (2018). Rock Engravings and Paintings: Rethinking of the Cupules, Gongs, and Grinding Hollows of Siuyu and Ughaugha in Singida East (Tanzania), Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection Vol.6 No.6.DOI10.4236/gep.2018.66012.

Mercader, J.F,Itambu, M.P. et al., (2018). Exaggerated expectations in ancient starch research and the need for new taphonomic and authenticity criteria. FACETS journal,

Soto, M., Mercader J., Inwood, J, Itambu, M.P.,, (forthcoming). Eradication of Contaminant Starch Granules from Synthetic Calculus: A Decontamination Protocol for Ancient Starch Research: Elsevier: Journal of Archaeological Sciences (JAS Reports). November, 2018.

Mercader, J.F, Itambu,M.P. et al., (2018). Morphometrics of Starch Granules From Sub-Saharan Plants and the Taxonomic Identification of Ancient Starch; Frontiers in Earth Science: Quaternary Science, Geomorphology, and Palaeoenvironment:

Julio Mercader, Siobhan Clarke, Mariam Bundala, Julien Favreau, Jamie Inwood, MakariusItambu, Fergus Larter, Patrick Lee, Garnet Lewiski-McQuaid, NeduvotoMollel, AloyceMwambwiga, Robert Patalano, Maria Soto, Laura Tucker, Dale Walde (2018). Soil and Plant Phytoliths from the Acacia-Commiphora Mosaics at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania).  22nd, October 2018.